Civil / Small Claims
Below is a list of court processes. Click on a subject for more information.
The Civil Division is designed to allow collection agencies, a collection agent, a firm, an association, a corporation or an individual being represented by an attorney, to file a claim to settle certain disputes that are not in excess of $25,000.00. These may include recovery for damages to personal property, money owed, or for delivery of personal property. Suits involving contracts, security deposits and warranties are also common. A civil lawsuit usually deals with private rights of individuals, groups or businesses. Any claim in excess of $25,000.00 must be filed in Circuit Court.
An example of a civil lawsuit is a collection agency suing an individual for a medical debt or a credit card company suing an individual for a past due bill.
The Civil Division holds court on Wednesdays at the following location:
Sebastian County Courts Complex
901 South B Street, Suite 105
Fort Smith, AR 72901
Small Claims Division
The Small Claims Division is designed to allow individuals to settle certain disputes in court with relaxed rules of procedure and without attorneys. Individuals who are represented by an attorney must file their claim in the civil division. This court is very similar to a people’s court. Individuals are allowed to sue in small claims court for different types of damages. Small claims court is often used as a means to recover money for damages to personal property, to recover personal property or to settle disputes involving contracts. All claims are limited by a set dollar amount, which is set by the state law. The current amount of a claim can not exceed $5,000.00 in the Small Claims Division.
No action can be brought in small claims court by a collection agency, collection agent, assignee of a claim or by any person, firm, partnership, association or corporation engaged, either primarily or secondarily, in the business of lending money at interest. By definition this includes credit bureaus and collection agencies. However, corporations, that are not classified as lending institutions (which have no more than three stockholders) may sue or be sued in small claims court, provided they are represented by officers of such corporations.
The entities listed above or persons with an attorney appearing on their behalf must file in the civil division. Attorneys are not allowed to practice in the small claims division. If an attorney appears in a small claims case, the case must be transferred to the civil division. All actions filed in the civil division are subject to the Inferior Court Rules, the Rules of Civil Procedure and the Uniform Rules of Evidence.
District Court has no jurisdiction over matters involving personal injury.
Pursuant to Ark. Code Ann. § 16-17-706. You can file a lawsuit in the county in which a defendant currently resides or in the county where an obligation was performed or property damage occurred. Proper filing in the Sebastian County District Court – Fort Smith Department would be if the defendant currently resides in Fort Smith or if the obligation or property damage occurred in Fort Smith. All other cases may need to be filed in the Sebastian County District Court – Greenwood Department. If there is a question regarding proper filing, you MUST seek the advice of an attorney. Court clerks are prohibited from practicing law and the clerk will be unable to provide you with advice on your case.
The Small Claims Division holds court on Wednesdays at the following location:
Sebastian County Courts Complex
901 South B Street, Suite 105
Fort Smith, AR 72901
The clerk is allowed to provide information regarding the procedures of this Court, being very careful not to give legal advice or to perform any investigative work for you. Please remember that the clerk of court is prohibited from practicing law. Therefore, the clerk will not provide advice about a case that is filed with the Court.
The State Legislature has elected to increase the filing fees to $80.00 for Civil and $65.00 for Small Claims. Other fees will remain the same.
Civil Division= $80.00
Small Claims Division= $65.00
Landlord Tenant Eviction filed in Civil = $80.00
Landlord Tenant Eviction filed in Small Claims = $65.00
FOREIGN JUDGMENT FILING FEES:
Civil Division= $80.00
Small Claims Division= $65.00
Writ of Garnishment= $10.00
Writ of Execution= $10.00
Writ of Scire Facias= $10.00
Copy Fees=$0.25 per page
You must supply the court with copies or you will be charged for copies at the above rate. If you wish to include documents along with the complaint, you must provide copies for the court, the defendant and service copy. (Three copies)
Appeal Transcript Fee= $5.00 per case
Certification of Judgment or Docket Sheet= $5.00 per case
Authentication of Judgment or Docket Sheet= $5.00 per case
Subpoena (Issuance) = $2.00 per subpoena
There are two types of service available for serving a summons**:
1. Sheriff - The fee is set by the sheriff's office. The plaintiff pays the sheriff directly unless the court has made other arrangments. (The Sebastian County Sheriff charges $50.00 per person to be served and only serves residents of Sebastian County)
2. Certified Mail, return receipt, restricted delivery. If you wish for the court to prepare the complaint for service by certified mail, you will need to pre-pay all applicable postage fees. Please contact the Court for current pricing.
**If the complaint is filed in the Small Claims Division, the clerk will prepare the service copies to be delivered to either the post office or the sheriff. If the complaint is filed in the Civil Division, the plaintiff is responsibe for delivering the complaint and summons to whichever entity they chose to use for service.
Sheriff’s Service for the following types of documents:
Garnishment= $50.00 per garnishee
Landlord Tenant Eviction Writ= $50.00 per address
Execution= $120.00 per defendant
A civil action is commenced by a plaintiff bringing a written complaint to the clerk of court. This is known as “filing” the suit. The clerk of court must file mark the complaint, which will note the date and precise time of filing, which establishes venue. The complaint must include the following information to serve its legal purpose:
- The names and current addresses of the plaintiff and the defendant;
- The amount of money claimed or a description of the property to be recovered;
- A brief description of why the plaintiff believes the defendant owes the amount of money or property claimed;
- Signature of the plaintiff.
A blank complaint form is provided by the Court to ensure that the specified information is contained in the complaint. Additional documents can be attached to the complaint form if the plaintiff deems it as necessary. Once the complaint is accepted by the clerk of court and filed by the court, the clerk will issue a summons and cause it to be delivered for service. The summons will inform the defendant that an action has been filed against him.
An action is not commenced unless the defendant is served with the claim form within one hundred twenty (120) days of filing. The plaintiff may elect to have the summons served on the defendant by certified mail or by the sheriff. Each defendant must be served, otherwise, the court does not obtain jurisdiction over the defendant. A copy of an answer form is provided by the court and included with the claim form for service. The complaint, summons and answer form shall all be served together. The court must have proof of service showing the date of service before proceeding with any further actions.
The defendant has thirty (30) days to answer the complaint. The defendant can answer the complaint as follows:
- I admit everything in the Complaint and Civil Summons and do not want a trial.
- I admit that I am responsible, but not for the total amount claimed by the plaintiff(s) and request a trial.
- I deny that I am responsible at all and request a trial
The defendant is required to mail a copy of the answer to the plaintiff and to the court. If the defendant admits everything, he may wish to contact the plaintiff to make arrangements to satisfy the debt. When a trial is requested, the clerk usually sets a trial date within thirty (30) to forty-five (45) days.
A counterclaim is a claim presented by a defendant in opposition to or requesting a deduction from the claim of the plaintiff. Counter claims are permitted and can be filed at the discretion of the defendant.
IF YOU ARE THE DEFENDANT
If you have been named as a defendant in a civil or small claims action and have received an order to appear in court, this means that you are being sued. If you don’t know why you are being sued, contact the plaintiff and ask for an explanation.
Never ignore an order to appear in court even if you think the case is wrong, unfair, or has no basis. If you do not appear in court at the proper time and date, the court may still hear and decide the case without you and you may lose the suit by default.
TRIALS AND HEARINGS
Once the complaint has been served, the court may set a hearing or trial to hear evidence. It is extremely important that you bring with you to trial all witnesses, documents, contracts, letters, pictures, bills or evidence necessary to prove your claim or defense. If you fail to do this, the case may be decided against you. If you need the testimony of a witness who will not attend trial voluntarily, you should ask the court, no later than ten (10) days before the trial date, to issue a subpoena requiring that person to attend. Subpoena requests must be submitted to the court in writing and must include sufficient information for the subpoena to be served. It is your responsibility to have the subpoena served and to pay the filing and service fees in order to do so.
The various types of hearings are listed below:
- Trial - A trial is scheduled when the defendant answers the complaint and denies part or all of the allegations set forth in the complaint. The plaintiff and defendant will bring all evidence and witnesses to court and the judge will hear the case and enter a judgment based upon the evidence.
- Default Hearing - If the defendant fails to answer the complaint, the plaintiff can request a hearing. The defendant is notified of the hearing. However, the defendant may not be allowed to enter any evidence in the case, because they failed to file an answer as required. The plaintiff will show their proof of debt to the judge and the judge will enter a judgment based upon the evidence.
- Hearing - A hearing may be set so evidence and/or argument may be presented to determine some issue or fact of law. For instance, a hearing may be set to determine if a case should be dismissed based upon the motions filed by the defendant or to determine if a party should be held in contempt for failing to follow an order of the court.
A judgment is entered in a case once the defendant has been served and the judge has reviewed the merits of the case. If the plaintiff has met the burden of proof, the judge will issue one of many types of judgments. Below is a list of some of the judgments that are commonly used in district court:
- Default Against the Defendant - A default judgment is entered when the defendant fails to answer the complaint within the specified time.
- Judgment on the Pleadings - This type of judgment is entered when the defendant answers the complaint by admitting the debt is owed. A judgment on the pleadings may also be ordered when the defendant files an answer, but fails to appear at the hearing.
- Consent Judgment - This type of judgment has been signed and agreed upon by both parties prior to submitting it to the court. A consent judgment is only used in the civil division.
- Judgment Against the Defendant - This judgment is entered against the defendant in open court when the plaintiff prevails on the case.
- Judgment For the Defendant - This judgment is entered in open court when the plaintiff fails to prove their case. This type of judgment dismisses the case against the defendant.
- Dismissal Without Prejudice - This is a dismissal of the case against the defendant which allows the case to be re-filed within one year.
- Dismissal With Prejudice - When a dismissal with prejudice is entered, the case cannot be brought back before the court.
- Dismissal for Lack of Prosecution - If the plaintiff fails to appear for the hearing, the judge will dismiss the case for lack of prosecution.
- Dismissal for Lack of Service - The plaintiff has one hundred twenty (120) days to obtain service of the complaint (unless a motion for more time is granted). When the complaint is not served within the allotted time, the case is dismissed without prejudice.
Once the judge decides the type of judgment to be entered, the judge will then determine the monetary amount of the judgment. Judgments have a life span of ten (10) years. A Writ of Scire Facias may be filed and if granted, the judgment will be revived and collectable for an additional ten (10) years.
If the Court rules in your favor and a judgment is entered, the court does not collect the money for you. While a judgment carries legal weight, it may be difficult to collect. Collecting the judgment can be one of the most challenging aspects of any lawsuit.
Judgments are a matter of public record. District Court does not report to any credit reporting agency; however, these agencies come to the court to retrieve judgment information to place on the losing party’s credit record.
You must wait ten (10) days from the date that the judgment is entered, before trying to collect the judgment or before you can take any further action.
SCHEDULE OF PROPERTY
If a monetary judgment is entered against the defendant, the following paragraph is included in the body of the judgment:
Furthermore , pursuant to Act 610 of 1991, the defendant must prepare a schedule, verified by affidavit, of all his property, both real and personal, including moneys, bank accounts, rights, credits and choses in action held by himself or others for him and specify the particular property which he claims as exempt under the provisions of the law. The Defendant’s schedule of exempt property must be filed with the clerk of the court within forty-five (45) days of entry of the final judgment order.
The schedule of property is used to assist the plaintiff in the collection of the judgment. If the defendant fails to file the schedule of property, the plaintiff may request a hearing to bring the defendant before the court to show cause why he should not be held in contempt of court for failing to file the schedule of property.
After the judgment has been rendered, either party may file an appeal within thirty (30) days from the date of the entry of judgment. The district clerk has a duty to prepare and certify such records when requested by the appellant. A transcript of judgment fee will be assessed for each case that is prepared for an appeal. The appellant has the responsibility to file the transcript record in the Office of the Circuit Clerk. Please check with the Circuit Clerk’s Office for the appropriate filing fee.
Once the case is appealed, the case is tried “de novo”, which means circuit court will hear the case as if it was never heard in district court. The prevailing party may continue to collect the judgment in district court unless an appeal bond or a supersedeas bond has been posted.
The prevailing party is required to wait ten (10) days from the date of judgment before commencing any collection activity on the judgment. If the judgment is not paid, the prevailing party may file the following to collect the judgment:
Writ of Garnishment - This is an attachment on the debtor’s bank, their wages or any other obligation owed to the judgment debtor. With this writ, an employer, bank, or anyone else owing the judgment debtor money, is ordered to subtract a certain amount of the defendant’s paycheck until the judgment is paid. The maximum amount per paycheck is twenty-five percent (25%).
After the Writ of Garnishment is filed, the bank or the debtor’s employer has twenty (20) days to file an answer. Failure by the bank or employer to answer could result in the judge entering a judgment against the bank or employer.
Writ of Execution - This writ advises the sheriff to take property of the defendant (i.e. vehicle, TV, stereo, etc.) and sell these items at a public auction. The money from the sale goes first, to satisfy the Sheriff’s costs of conducting the sale and secondly to satisfy the judgment.
Lien on Real Property - The judgment can be turned into a lien against real estate that the debtor owns by recording a certified copy of the judgment in the circuit clerk’s office of the county where the land is located.
Once the debtor has paid the judgment debt in full, the judgment creditor must file a satisfaction of judgment. The satisfaction can be used by the debtor to prove to any future creditors that the judgment has been paid and collection has ceased. If the judgment creditor has placed a lien on the debtor’s property, the judgment creditor must file a certified copy of the satisfaction with the circuit clerk's office in the county where the property is located.
Below is a list of forms that may be printed, completed and submitted to the District Court Business Office for filing. The content of the forms will be reviewed before acceptance by the the District Court Business Office for content and approval.
You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader in order to view these forms.